Canada known for their delicious maple syrup and been home to nearly all of the greatest hockey players of all time is the second largest nation on earth and with approximately two million lakes contains over 50 percent of the freshwater lakes on the planet for many thousands of years.
This region was populated with many indigenous tribes of Hardy people capable of overcoming the severe and lengthy winters thriving and developing unique cultures the first non-native people to settle in Canada and the new world in general that we know of for sure were the Vikings they built a settlement in Newfoundland around 1000 AD it is unclear for exactly how long this settlement was occupied for or if there was more but ultimately it was either abandoned pillaged or its inhabitants succumb to disease or assimilated into the local population but theories abound nearly 500 years
later in 1497 Italian Explorer Giovanni Caputo was the first European to explore North America’s coast claiming it for the English crown shortly after the Spanish and the Portuguese would do the same but remained uncalled for chi-chi’s and Basque fishing outposts built until the French arrived yucch Cartier claiming the land for France in 1534 he named the Gulf and River after st.
Lawrence’s feast day on which he arrived the French called the around the river Canada after the native word for settlement after several failed attempts at permanent settlement succumbed to starvation and disease the cities of Quebec and Port Royal were successfully established by 1670
the English colonies in the south had expanded and new settlements were established in Newfoundland and south of the Hudson Bay the fur trade particularly in beaver pelts became extremely lucrative as it became the favorite material for hat makers and luxury winter clothing in NorthernEurope
this greatly encouraged further northern settlement by both English and fur trappers seeking to make a fortune the French and the English did not peacefully coexist with the French temporarily taking much of the territory around the Hudson Bay during the lengthy period known as the beaver wars not only the Europeans became wealthy and influential from the trade in beaver pelts the Iroquois Confederation of six powerful tribes armed with European firearms initially allied with Dutch merchants
And then the English to aggressively attack the French and most other Indian tribes in the region to obtain more furs many of these tribes banded together with the French to halt Iroquois expansion peace was negotiated after 72 years of fighting and many Indian lives lost and little territorial change the region of New France was comprised of several colonies Canada and Louisiana were the largest along with the smaller place ins and which the British Empire obtained from the French and the Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713 in a complicated agreement concerning the war of Spanish Succession Francis will recognize the legitimacy of the Hudson Bay companies claim over Rupert’s land interestingly the Hudson Bay Company is still in existence today primarily as owners of a retail store chain bearing their name despite their larger territory.
the French increasingly became outnumbered by the rapidly growing British colonies surrounding them by a margin of 10 to 1 by the time the next major conflict between the two occurred during the Seven Years War or the French and Indian War as it has become known in much of North America french-speaking Acadians were deported far from the Canadian border lands some of whom formed the basis of much of the Cajun population of modern-day Louisiana and New Orleans.
both English and French empires sent thousands of regular infantry to North America during the war supported by local militias and Indian tribes the greatly outnumbered French relied heavily on Indian allies and fought the British to a standstill early in the war until the British successfully besieged the cities of Quebec and Montreal despite the French later defeating the British in a pitched battle they failed to retake their capital city in the treaty that ended the war soon after France ceded Canada to Britain while Louisiana territory to her ally Spain
it is important to note at this time much of North America’s non coastal areas were still largely unpopulated with many of the native tribes heavily depleted through warfare and invasive diseases from which they had a little immune with the population of approximately 3 million the American colonies waged a successful rebellion against the British crown a little over a decade later the Americans attempted and failed to take Quebec which remain loyal to Great Britain after the war many British loyalists moved north into Canada during
the following war of 1812 both British and American armies launched several failed invasions of each other’s territory ending in military stalemate and the status quo was maintained the treaties following the war established a more formalized border between the two nations despite the Canadians desire not to join their American neighbors to the south movements for self-rule increasingly grew among the Canadian lower and middle classes culminating in the rebellions of 1837 and 38
that were severely dealt and crushed and solved a short-lived Republic of Canada established by William Lloyd Mackenzie despite the Republic’s short-lived lifespan and diminutive size widespread public support not only from many both French and English speaking but also from Americans to the south spurred Great Britain’s government to make major concessions in the rebellions aftermath the Act of Union
in 1840 United Upper and Lower Canada into the new province of Canada and the granting of responsible government soon after allowed for a far greater degree of self-rule to be exercised by the elected representatives of the people in 1846 the disputed organ territory was peaceably divided between Great Britain and the United States pretty much by drawing a straight line and giving Vancouver Island to Canada throughout the nineteenth century a massive boom in the logging industry fueled large waves of immigration to Canada gradually replacing the fur trade as Canada’s most lucrative industry.
in 1867 the British North America Act or more commonly called the Constitution Act today established Canada as a self-governing democracy with Ottawa as his capital city to the west the Hudson’s Bay Company negotiated the sale of Rupert’s land to the newly formed Canadian government the maytee people of mixed primarily French and Indian ancestry we’re the largest population of the Winnipeg area of what is now Manitoba fearing the land they had held for generations would be seized by newcomers from the east
they rose in rebellion creating a provisional government and after a tense standoff an eventual occupation by federal troops many of their demands were met respecting their rights the leader of the rebellion Louie Riel would lead another larger but less successful rebellion 15 years later that ended with his trial and execution Louie Riel became a martyr or villain to many Canadians his death increasing the tensions between Indian maytee English and French groups in society because of the key rule the partially completed Transcontinental railway played in the suppression of the rebellion political support for completing it soared among english-speaking Canadians and the railroad was completed in only four years from what it had begun
the 1890s saw the Klondike a gold rush in which over a hundred thousand prospectors set out to the remote Yukon region in hopes of striking it rich some did but most didn’t after several decades of stagnant population growth largely due to emigration to the United States Canada’s population sharply increased due to a economy and high foreign emigration throughout the early 20th century during the first world war Canada still a Dominion of the United Kingdom sent six hundred and twenty thousand troops to fight in Europe
67 thousand would die while another hundred and seventy-three thousand would be wounded the staggering casualty rate grieved and shocked the nation the war had a strong impact on Canadian nationalism and the desire to self-govern its own international affairs which they obtained when the Parliament passed the statute of Westminster in 1931 which acknowledged Canada’s co-equal status with the United Kingdom between the world wars Canada was hit particularly hard during the Great Depression of the early 1930s with unemployment rates reaching 25% and many men living in unemployment relief camps during the second world war over 1.1 million Canadians served in that brutal conflict that left nearly a hundred thousand of them dead or wounded in 1949
became the last Canadian province to incorporate in 1965 Canada adopted its current flag here’s a selection of some of the other national flags that were proposed me know in the comments of which one do you think looks best in 1982 the Canada Act passed the Parliament of the United Kingdom and was ratified by the Queen granting Canada the right to create their own constitution which they promptly did still recognising the constitutional monarchy in a mostly ceremonial rule the new constitution abolished.
the British Parliament’s remnants of influence over Canada Canada is now a nation of over 36 million people where over 20 percent speak French as a first language and has the tenth largest economy in the world the province of Quebec has maintained a strong French influence over the centuries and has on two occasions voted in referendums to decide whether Quebec should proclaim national sovereignty and become an independent country in 1995 it very nearly did not pass with secession still being an issue till this day this has been Epimetheus let me know what you think down in the comments what Canadian province is your favorite to visit